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Study-Size Adjusted Percentages in Integrated Adverse Event Displays

To those of us who regularly create or review adverse event (AE) incidence tables for randomized controlled trials, it may come as a surprise that your typical AE incidence table can be misleading if data was combined from more than one trial. This is due to “Simpson’s paradox,” which, simply put, is the phenomenon that the mere grouping of data can introduce confounding or bias otherwise not present.

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Submitting SAS Programs to FDA

To those of us who regularly create or review adverse event (AE) incidence tables for randomized controlled trials, it may come as a surprise that your typical AE incidence table can be misleading if data was combined from more than one trial. This is due to “Simpson’s paradox,” which, simply put, is the phenomenon that the mere grouping of data can introduce confounding or bias otherwise not present.

Blog Post

How to estimate the sample size for your next study from a publication with nothing but p-values and Ns

As statisticians, we’re frequently asked to do power and sample size calculations from very thin data. Often, we’re given nothing but an ancient publication containing a few p-values, an occasional mean, and maybe a standard deviation (if we’re lucky). Back calculating something meaningful in these situations can seem intimidating, but it turns out that most standard sample size software can do the work for us when used unconventionally. We’ve outlined 2 such unconventional uses.

patricia stephenson
Blog Post

Innovative Designs in Early-Stage Studies

Innovation in early-stage studies presents the best opportunity to streamline the drug development process. Such designs may not only reduce costs and accelerate timelines but give us better flexibility to address the questions of interest in an increasingly evolving clinical development landscape.

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Planning for a Successful Centralised Marketing Authorisation Application in the European Union

In the dynamic landscape of pharmaceuticals, obtaining a centralised marketing authorisation in the European Union (EU) is a crucial step for companies looking to bring their medicines to a broad market. The European Medicines Agency (EMA) is responsible for the scientific evaluation of applications for centralised marketing authorizations in the EU, offering a streamlined process that enables companies to submit a single marketing authorisation application (MAA) and to market their products across the entire European Economic Area (EEA), which includes the EU countries, Iceland, Norway and Liechtenstein, based on a single authorisation.

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How Many Strata can my Randomized Clinical Trial have?

When running a randomized clinical trial, if there are factors which are known during the study design phase to influence study results, it may be advantageous to utilize a stratified randomization which ensures each prognostic factor is balanced between treatment arms.

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Handling Efficacy Data in Long-Term Ongoing Studies for a Submission

Regulatory reviewers will expect a Clinical Study Report (CSR) and supporting electronic data packages for these studies, but that doesn’t have to delay our filing date. We have outlined suggested techniques to provide the agency with everything they need to review the application, without compromising the integrity of the ongoing study.

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Updated Guidance on Formal Meetings Between the FDA and Sponsors: What Has Changed?  

In September 2023, the FDA announced a new draft guidance, “Formal Meetings Between the FDA and Sponsors or Applicants of PDUFA Products.” The new guidance provides recommendations for formal meetings conducted by industry sponsors or applicants with the FDA for the development of either drug or biological drug products and does not apply to abbreviated new drug applications, applications for biosimilar biological products, or medical devices.